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Accessible version FAQ

UEFA.com's frequently asked questions (FAQ) section is designed to answer the questions posed most often by our users.

COEFFICIENTS (associations, clubs, access list)

Calculation system
The allocation of places per association for both the UEFA Champions League and, from 2009/10, UEFA Europa League, is made in accordance with a table of performances covering the previous five UEFA club competition seasons (ie UEFA Champions League and UEFA Cup/UEFA Europa League).

This table (UEFA association coefficient ranking) is compiled annually, with the oldest season dropped each time for the purpose of the calculation. The table is compiled as follows: two points for a win (one point for qualifying round matches), one point for a draw (half point for qualifying round matches) and no points for a defeat.

Qualifying round results are taken into account only for the calculation of the association's coefficient.

Until the 2003/04 season, clubs that reached the quarter-finals, semi-finals or final of the UEFA Champions League and UEFA Cup were awarded an extra point for each round. In addition, one point was awarded for participation in the UEFA Champions League.

From the 2004/05 campaign, clubs that reach the round of 16, quarter-finals, semi-finals or final of the UEFA Champions League or the quarter-finals, semi-finals or final of the UEFA Cup are awarded an extra point for each round. In addition, three points are awarded for participation in the UEFA Champions League.

Results obtained in the UEFA Intertoto Cup do not count for the coefficient rankings determining the number of places in the UEFA Champions League and UEFA Cup.

The points obtained each season by the clubs representing a national association are added, then divided by the combined number of clubs from the same association that took part in the two UEFA club competitions to produce the coefficient value of the national association concerned. Points obtained in the UEFA Intertoto Cup are exempt from this stipulation. Coefficients are calculated to the thousandth, and not rounded up.

Points are awarded only for matches that have actually been played, in accordance with the results ratified by UEFA. Penalty kicks to determine which club qualifies or to determine the winner of a tie do not affect the actual result of the match.

Club coefficient
The club coefficient, which is used for seeding purposes, is made of the number of points obtained by said club in the three UEFA club competitions over the last five seasons plus 33% of its national association coefficient. Qualifying round matches are not taken into account as far as individual club performances are concerned.

Access list
The access list determines how many clubs per country will enter a club competition and at which stage.

CLUB LICENSING

UEFA and its member associations are working closely on a club licensing system aimed at ensuring a greater stability within European football. In order to obtain a licence which is compulsory in order to play in European competitions, clubs have to fulfil various administrative, financial, sporting and juridical criteria as well as proving adequate infrastructures.

The objectives of this system are multiple:
- promoting and improving sporting standards
- increasing the focus on the training and care of young players
- strengthening the economic and financial capacity of clubs, increasing their transparency and credibility, and placing the necessary importance on the protection of creditors
- adopting sporting infrastructures to future requirements so that spectators and the media can visit well-appointed, well-equipped and safe stadia
- improving the quality of the administration in club football; and providing the necessary help, support and education to the national associations, leagues and clubs operating the licensing system

By being in line with such standards, clubs should be further protected from financial burdens that could lead them to bankruptcy.

RESPECT: FAIR PLAY ASSESSMENT

Definition
Conduct according to the spirit of fair play is essential for the successful promotion and development of, and involvement in, sport. The objective of activities in favour of fair play is to foster a sporting spirit, as well as the sporting behaviour of players, team officials and spectators, thereby increasing the enjoyment of all involved in the game.

Assessment
In its efforts to promote fair play, UEFA establishes association fair play rankings for each season, based on all matches played in all UEFA competitions (national representative and club teams) between 1 June and 31 May. In establishing these rankings, only those associations whose teams have played at least the required number of matches (total number of matches assessed divided by the number of associations) are taken into account.

For this purpose, fair play conduct is assessed by the appointed UEFA match delegate. In reward for the fair play example they set, a maximum of three associations which attain a previously defined standard (average of eight points or more in the rankings) each receive one additional place in the UEFA Europa League of the next season. These additional places are reserved for the winners of the respective domestic top-division fair play competitions. If the winners of the domestic top-division fair play competition have already qualified for a UEFA competition, the UEFA Cup fair play place goes to the highest team in the domestic top-division fair play rankings which has not already qualified for a UEFA competition.

Following the game which he or she has been appointed to observe, the delegate is expected to complete a Fair Play assessment form, in consultation with the referee and, where applicable, the referee observer. The referee confirms with his signature that he has discussed fair play aspects with the delegate.

Methods of assessment
The assessment form identifies several criteria for the evaluation of the fair play performance of the teams:

Red and yellow cards (deduction from a maximum of ten points):
- yellow card, one point
- red card, three points
Positive play (maximum of ten points)
Positive aspects:
- attacking rather then defensive tactics
- acceleration of the game
- efforts to gain time, eg bringing the ball quickly back into play, even when in a winning position
- continued pursuit of goals, even if the desired result has already been achieved
Negative aspects
- deceleration of the game
- time-wasting
- tactics based on foul play
- play-acting, etc
Respect of the opponent (maximum five points)
- helping an injured opponent
Respect of the referee (maximum five points)
- positive attitude towards the referee
- acceptance of doubtful decisions without protest
Behaviour of team officials (maximum five points)
- calming or provoking angry players or fans
- acceptance of the referee's decisions
Behaviour of the crowd (maximum five points)
- encouragement of teams by shouting, singing, etc, in accordance with the spirit of fair play
- respect of the opposing team, of the referee and of the opposing supporters
Overall assessment
- The overall assessment of a team is obtained by adding up the points given for the individual components, dividing this total by the maximum number of points and multiplying the result by ten.
- The maximum number of points per game generally equals 40. If, however, a given team is being supported by a negligible amount of fans, and the item 'Behaviour of the crowd' is not being assessed as a result, the maximum number of points obtainable will be 35.
- The general assessment should be calculated to three decimal points and not rounded up.

ISRAEL MEMBERSHIP

According to UEFA Statutes, in exceptional circumstances, a national football association that is situated in another continent may be admitted to membership of UEFA, provided that it is not a member of the confederation of that continent, or of any other confederation, and that world football's governing body FIFA approves its membership of UEFA.
Due to the political situation in this particular part of the world at the beginning of the 1990s, Israel asked for its affiliation to UEFA. In an effort to contribute to the development of football and to give an opportunity to as many people as possible to enjoy the game, the UEFA Executive Committee decided to accept the affiliation request.

This was done in three steps:
- 19 September 1991 in Montreux, Switzerland: Admission of teams from Israel to European club competitions.
- 19 September 1993 in Cyprus: The UEFA Executive Committee agrees on a provisory admission of The Israel Football Association (IFA).
- 28 April 1994 in Vienna, Austria: The UEFA Congress agrees on a definite admission of the IFA to UEFA.

CUPS & MEDALS

A trophy is presented to the winning club for one year. A full-size replica of the trophy is awarded to the winners, with the original trophy remaining with UEFA. Any club that wins the trophy three consecutive times or five times in total receives a special mark of recognition.

In total, 30 gold medals are presented to the winning club and 30 silver medals to the runners-up. Additional medals may not be produced.

TICKETING

With the exception of matches at UEFA European Championship final tournaments, UEFA alone sells tickets for the finals of its club competitions. These tickets are sold through UEFA's website from around three months before the respective final game.

Tickets for any other games should be bought from the home club for local and neutral supporters, or from the visiting club for visiting fans.

All clubs in the UEFA competitions must make at least 5% of the total capacity of their stadium available exclusively to visiting supporters, in a segregated, safe area.

The price of tickets for fans of the visiting club may not exceed the price of tickets of a comparable quality that are sold to supporters of the home club.

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

Where can I find a list of UEFA's 53 member associations?
A list of the 53 countries whose national football associations are members of UEFA is available in UEFA.com's Member Associations section.

Where can I find contact information for clubs and national football associations?
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format version of the 2010/11 First Division Clubs in Europe address list, which also includes information about national football associations.

Where can I find facts and figures about UEFA's 53 member associations?
Download the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format version of the 2009/10 First Division Clubs in Europe address list, which also includes facts and figures about UEFA's 53 member associations.

Where can I find a list of UEFA's committees and panels, and their members?
This information can be found in UEFA.com's UEFA Organisation section.

Where can I find details and news of anti-racism campaigns in European football?
This information can be found here in the UEFA Organisation section.

Where can I find out about UEFA's anti-doping activities?
This information can be found here in the UEFA Organisation section.

Where can I find out about UEFA's relations with the European Union?
This information can be found here in the UEFA Organisation section.

Where can I find details of grassroots work in UEFA and in European football?
This information can be found here in the UEFA Organisation section.

Where can I find details of UEFA's Respect campaign?
This information can be found here in the UEFA Organisation section.

Where can I find details of UEFA's social responsibility work?
This information can be found here in the UEFA Organisation section.

Where can I find disciplinary lists?
In the disciplinary charts, which are published before each club competition matchday and at UEFA European Championship final rounds.

Where can I find information about revenue from UEFA's competitions and the distribution of revenue to national football associations and clubs?Read about financial data related to UEFA and its competitions.

Where can I find information about training routines?
Find out about this in UEFA.com's Training Ground section.

Where can I find information about UEFA as an organisation?
Read an overview of UEFA's history and role as an organisation as well as information about UEFA's divisions and related companies.

Where can I find previous editions of uefadirect?
Download Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format copies of uefadirect.

Where can I find UEFA's technical reports?
Disciplinary charts and other publications from the UEFA Media Desk can be found here.

Where can I find UEFA's media releases?
Media releases and other publications from the UEFA Media Desk can be found here.

Where do I find details of UEFA's HatTrick assistance programme for the European national associations?
You can find this information in the UEFA Organisation section.

Who should I contact for information about coaching courses?

Please refer to your national football association for information about coaching courses in your country.

How do I contact the UEFA Media Desk?
Journalists should contact the UEFA Media Desk at tel: +41 (0) 848 04 2727.

Where can I find information about accreditations?
Journalists can find information about accreditations here.

How do I contact a football player?
Please refer to the player's club for contact information.

Where can I find information about working at UEFA?
Information about working at UEFA.

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